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日常生活では、どんな店屋の主人でもしごくあたりまえに、ある人が自分がこうだと称する人柄と、その人が実際にどういう人であるのかということを区別することぐらいはできるのに、わが歴史記述ときては、まだこんなありふれた認識にさえも達していないのである。それは、あらゆる時代を、その時代が自分自身について語り、思い描いた言葉どおりに信じ込んでいるのである。    『ドイツ・イデオロギー』

私家版・従軍慰安婦問題のリンク集(2008・8)

080516

国連による成績通知表 文書番号A/HRC/WG.6/2/JPN/2 04:06 はてなブックマーク - 国連による成績通知表 文書番号A/HRC/WG.6/2/JPN/2 - kmiura 国連による成績通知表 文書番号A/HRC/WG.6/2/JPN/2 - kmiura のブックマークコメント

国連人権理事会(UN Human Rights Council)による日本の人権尊守状況のレビューイング。いわばこれまでの勧告に対する”成績調査”あるいは到達度の状況確認である。日本政府の法的・政治的な責任を問う内容で、あいかわらず日本はなにもしていない。法的・政治的責任ということで、下に金光翔さんの論文からの抜粋を追加しました。(リンク

この成績通知表はこちらでPDFをダウンロード化(おこじょさんの日記経由http://d.hatena.ne.jp/o-kojo2/20080515#p2)。

従軍慰安婦に関連する部分を抜粋。

page 8

3. Cooperation with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

B. Implementation of international human rights obligations

3. Administration of justice and the rule of law

26. The Special Rapporteur on violence against women in 2003 reported, inter alia, that Japan had still not accepted legal responsibility for the “comfort women” who were kept in military sexual slavery during the Second World War. It had also not punished many of the perpetrators responsible for such crimes(96). CEDAW in 2003 noted recurrent concerns about the issue of “wartime comfort women” and recommended that Japan endeavour to find a lasting solution for this matter (97). CAT in 2007 regretted the dismissal of cases filed by victims of military sexual slavery during the Second World War for reasons related to statutory limitations. Japan should review its rules and provisions on the statute of limitations and bring them fully in line with the Convention, so that acts amounting to torture and ill-treatment, including attempts to commit torture and acts by any person which amount to complicity or participation in acts of torture are investigated, prosecuted and punished without time limitations (98).

page 11

IV. KEY NATIONAL PRIORITIES, INITIATIVES AND COMMITMENTS

B. Specific recommendations for follow-up

37. In 2007, CAT requested Japan to provide within one year information on its response to the Committee’s recommendations related to: non-refoulement, detention and deportation of asylum-seekers and immigrants; Daiyo Kangoku (detention in the substitute prison system); interrogation rules and confessions; and compensation and rehabilitation, concerning remedies for victims of sexual violence, including in particular survivors of Japan’s military sexual slavery practices during the Second World War.129


Refernces 04:22 はてなブックマーク - Refernces - kmiura Refernces - kmiura のブックマークコメント

96

Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, on International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women, 1994-2002, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, para. 1043, and E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1/Corr.1.

以下、引用者註

2003年のクマラスワミによる報告。1996年のものとは違うので注意。--> Link

該当箇所

II. REGIONAL AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AREA OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

C. Asia/Pacific region

Japan

Issues of concern

1043. At the invitation of the Governments of the Republic of Korea and Japan, the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, visited Seoul from 18 to 22 July 1995 and Tokyo from 22 to 27 July 1995 to study in depth the issue of military sexual slavery in wartime, within the wider framework of violence against women (E/CN.4/1996/53/Add.1). Japan has still not accepted legal responsibility for the “comfort women” who were kept in military sexual slavery during the Second World War. It has also not punished many of the perpetrators responsible for such crimes.

97

A/58/38, paras. 361-362.

以下、引用者註

General Documents Not Relating To Specific States

"Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women"

General Assembly Official Records Fifty-eighth Session Supplement No. 38 (A/58/38)

Twenty-eighth session, 13-31 January 2003

Twenty-ninth session, 30 June-18 July 2003

--> Link

該当箇所

(page 134-135)

Fourth and fifth periodic reports

Japan

Concluding comments of the Committee

Principal areas of concern and recommendations

361. While acknowledging legal and other measures by the State party to address violence against women, the Committee is concerned about the prevalence of violence against women and girls and about women’s apparent reluctance to seek assistance from existing public institutions. It is concerned that the Law for the Prevention of Spousal Violence and the Protection of Victims currently does not cover forms of violence other than physical violence. It is also concerned that the penalty for rape is relatively lenient and that incest is not defined explicitly as a crime under the Penal Code but is dealt with indirectly under a number of different penal provisions. The Committee is further concerned about the particular situation of foreign women who experience domestic violence and whose immigration status might depend on their living together with their spouse. The Committee is concerned that fear of repatriation might be a deterrent for those women to seek assistance or take steps to seek separation or divorce. While appreciative of the comprehensive information provided by the State party with respect to the measures it has taken before and after the Committee’s consideration of the second and third periodic reports of the State party with respect to the issue of “wartime comfort women”, the Committee notes the ongoing concerns about the issue.

362. The Committee calls upon the State party to intensify its efforts to address the issue of violence against women, including domestic violence, as an infringement of their human rights. In particular, the Committee urges the State party to broaden the Law for the Prevention of Spousal Violence and the Protection of Victims so as to include different forms of violence, increase the penalty for rape and include incest as a specific crime in its penal legislation, and implement policies in accordance with the Committee’s general recommendation 19, in order to prevent violence; provide protection, support and other services to the victims; and punish offenders. The Committee recommends that revocation of residence permits of foreign but separated married women who experience domestic violence be undertaken only after a full assessment of the impact of such measures on those women. The Committee recommends that the State party endeavour to find a lasting solution for the matter of “wartime comfort women”.

98

CAT/C/JPN/CO/1, para. 12.

以下、引用者註

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE : JAPAN (3 August 2007) -> Link)

該当箇所

C. Principal subjects of concern and recommendations

Statute of limitations

12. The Committee notes with concern that acts amounting to torture and ill-treatment are subject to a statute of limitations. The Committee is concerned that the statute of limitations for acts amounting to torture and ill-treatment may prevent investigation, prosecution and punishment of these grave crimes. In particular, the Committee regrets the dismissal of cases filed by victims of military sexual slavery during the Second World War, the so-called “comfort women”, for reasons related to statutory limitations.

The State Party should review its rules and provisions on the statute of limitations and bring them fully in line with its obligations under the Convention, so that acts amounting to torture and ill-treatment, including attempts to commit torture and acts by any person which constitute complicity or participation in torture, can be investigated, prosecuted and punished without time limitations.

...

Compensation and rehabilitation

24. The Committee is concerned at the inadequate remedies for the victims of sexual violence, including in particular survivors of Japans’s military sexual slavery practices during the Second World War and the failure to carry out effective educational and other measures to prevent sexual violence- and gender-based breaches of the Convention. The survivors of the wartime abuses, acknowledged by the State party representative as having suffered ‘incurable wounds’, experience continuing abuse and re-traumatization as a result of the State party’s official denial of the facts, concealment or failure to disclose other facts, failure to prosecute those criminally responsible for acts of torture, and failure to provide adequate rehabilitation to the victims and survivors.

The Committee considers that both education (article 10 of the Convention) and remedial measures (article 14 of the Convention) are themselves a means of preventing further violations of the State party’s obligations in this respect under the Convention. Continuing official denial, failure to prosecute, and failure to provide adequate rehabilitation all contribute to a failure of the State party to meet its obligations under the Convention to prevent torture and ill-treatment, including through educational and rehabilitation measures. The Committee recommends that the State party take measures to provide education to address the discriminatory roots of sexual and gender-based violations, and provide rehabilitation measures to the victims, including steps to prevent impunity.

129

CAT/C/JPN/CO/1, para. 31.

以下、引用者註

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE : JAPAN (3 August 2007) -> Link)

31. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within one year, information on its response to the Committee’s recommendations contained in paragraphs 14, 15, 16 and 24.

国連人権理事会08年レビュー 関連リンク 04:40 はてなブックマーク -  国連人権理事会08年レビュー 関連リンク - kmiura  国連人権理事会08年レビュー 関連リンク - kmiura のブックマークコメント

理事会による08年5月9日付のプレスリリース

…はこちら。

http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/Highlights9May2008pm.aspx

抜粋。

Universal Periodic Review

Second session meeting highlights

9 May 2008 (afternoon)

The Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review Working Group reviewed the fulfillment of human rights obligations by Japan this morning, during which 42 Council members and observers raised a number of issues pertaining to the human rights situation in the country.

...

Issues and questions raised by the Working Group, comprised of the 47 members of the Council, and Observers participating in the interactive discussion related to measures put in place to address the demand factor in cases of trafficking of human beings, especially women for commercial sexual exploitation purposes; efforts to respond to the recommendations of the international community and various human rights institutions with regard to Japan’s military sexual slavery practices during the Second World War; steps to address the issue of entertainment visas provided to women as expressed by CEDAW and the issue of violence against women and girls; concrete steps the Government’s Gender Equality Bureau was taking in order to promote non-discrimination and a gender-free society; the main steps taken in the promotion and fulfillment of the rights of the child and women; efforts to alert the number of child prostitution, child pornography, and acts including children using Internet dating services; and the intention of Japan to implement the recommendations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child to eliminate any discrimination against children born out of wedlock.

...

Other recommendations included: To take concrete measures to address the Japanese Military Sexual Slavery and other violations committed in the past in other countries, including in Korea; to take measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination against Koreans; to implement the recommendation of the Special Rapporteur on racism and racial discrimination; to take measures to eliminate discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity; to repeal all legal provisions that discriminate against women and to sign the Optional Protocol to CEDAW; to raise the age of marriage consent to 18 for both men and women; to adapt national legislation and put it in line with the principles of equality and non-discrimination; to consider establishing a legislation defining and prohibiting discrimination in all forms; and to offer a definition of discrimination in its criminal law.

...

Members States taking the floor during the interactive discussion were the Philippines, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Malaysia, China, Canada, the United Kingdom, Egypt, France, Slovenia, Mexico, The Netherlands, Brazil, Germany, the Republic of Korea, Guatemala, Switzerland, Bangladesh, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Italy, the Russian Federation, Qatar, Sri Lanka, Romania, Pakistan and Peru.

...

The 17-person delegation of Japan consisted of representatives from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Justice, the National Policy Agency, the National Police Agency, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations Office at Geneva.

[] 法的・政治的責任について 09:41 はてなブックマーク -  法的・政治的責任について - kmiura  法的・政治的責任について - kmiura のブックマークコメント

以下、金光翔さんの「<佐藤優現象>批判」からの引用になります。

また、九〇年代以降の歴史認識・戦後補償をめぐる対日批判において、問われていたのは日本国家の法的・政治的責任であり、主権者たる日本国民の法的・政治的責任であったにもかかわらず、日本のリベラル・左派の多くがその「応答」に失敗したことにもこの「反日ナショナリズム」言説の蔓延の背景にある。例えば馬場は、「国民国家の枠組の残存は、植民地支配と戦争の責務を問う被害者・被害国からの声にたいする応答責任への道を閉ざす要因ともなっている」と述べているが(35)、ここでは、加害国の「国民」として、被害者への政治的責任を果たそうという姿勢(例えば高橋哲哉(36))が、「国民国家の枠組の残存」として矮小化されている。また、岩波ジュニア新書の上村幸治『中国のいまがわかる本』(二〇〇六年三月)では、「日本の若い人に戦争責任はありません。若い人が曽祖父や、その上の世代の起こした戦争について謝罪する必要もありません。日本は政府がすでに中国に公式に謝罪したし、中国政府もそれを認めています」とした上で、中国からの対日批判を「私たちに課された重荷として受け止めないといけません」と説かれている。同書は、中国の「反日運動」を過剰な「反日ナショナリズム」として説明しようとする典型的な本だが、対日批判で問われている政治的な責任を無視して、中国人への反感を「この本の主な読者」の「中学生、高校生から大学の一、二年生あたり」に煽ろうという狙いが透けて見える(37)。

 上村は論外としても、馬場の言説は、「国民基金」の論理に直結している。「国民基金」の呼びかけ人の一人であった大沼保昭は、「韓国では「慰安婦」問題は日本への不信と猜疑という反日ナショナリズムの象徴と化し」、「「何度謝ってもまだ足りないと言われる」ことに苛立つ日本の一部のメディアは、元「慰安婦」を「売春婦」呼ばわりする感情的な議論を爆発させた」と、日本の右派による「慰安婦」バッシングまで「反日ナショナリズム」のせいにしている(38)。被害者への国家賠償を忌避する「国民基金」が、正当にも韓国の世論に拒絶された結果として、「国民基金」を支持する層が自己の立場の正当化を動機として「反日ナショナリズム」論に移行していったように思われる(39)。

 大沼が「反日ナショナリズム」論に行き着く過程は、リベラル・左派のうち、国民基金には否定的だとする人々の一部も共有しているように思われる。そのことを考える材料になるのが、上野千鶴子の以下の一文である。「高橋(注・哲哉)さんが「日本国という政治共同体の一員としての法的・政治的責任」(注・以下、「法的・政治的責任」)を果たそうとすることの内容は、参政権を行使したり運動体に参加したり、シンポジウムや声明に参加したりというように、わたしや他の人々の行為とそう違わないだろう」(傍線部は引用者)。傍線部については、①戦争犯罪等に関する国家補償や責任者処罰を日本政府に履行させること(高橋の言う、「法的・政治的責任」を果たすこととは、これであろう)のための手段として、それ自体は「法的・政治的責任」を果たすこととは無関係なものとして記述されている ②それ自体が「法的・政治的責任」を部分的にでも果たす価値を持つものとして記述されている の二通りの解釈ができる。だが、これは②、あるいは、仮に①のつもりで記述したとしても②の認識も持っていた、と解釈することが妥当であるように思われる。なぜならば、この一文の少し後に、花崎皋平と徐京植との論争に関しての、上野の以下の一文があるからである。「徐さんは、「共生の作法」を、日本人であるあなた(注・花崎)には説く資格がない、と語っているように見える。花崎さん自身がどんなプロセスでそこにいたり、「日本人としての責任」を果たすためのさまざまなアクションを起こし、「わかろう」としない他の日本人マジョリティを説得するための努力をしてきたかを不問にして(中略)その部分は無視されるのだ。」(40)上野は、花崎の「さまざまなアクション」、「努力」が、「法的・政治的責任」を部分的にでも果たしているにもかかわらず、徐はそれを「無視」している、と徐を批判している、と読める。上野は、傍線部が、「法的・政治的責任」を部分的にでも果たしているとの認識を持っていると解釈せざるを得ない。日本では、「参政権を行使したり運動体に参加したり、シンポジウムや声明に参加したり」といった形で、戦後補償の実現に向けて「さまざまなアクション」、「努力」がなされ、「法的・政治的責任」を果たす具体的な行動が展開されているにもかかわらず、韓国世論は、対日批判の調子を一向に弱めない。これは日本側の問題というより、韓国の「ナショナリズム」のせいではないのか―こうして、上野や、戦後補償関係の運動に携わっている一部の層が、国民基金の支持者と同じ回路で、「反日ナショナリズム」論に合流したように思われる。

金光翔「<佐藤優現象>批判」(『インパクション』第160号(2007年11月刊)掲載) より。

http://gskim.blog102.fc2.com/blog-entry-1.html

トラックバック - http://ianhu.g.hatena.ne.jp/kmiura/20080516